Germany supports one of the most diverse surveying and mapping industries in the world with over 300 private sector organizations and about 250 federal and state agencies actively producing maps listed in the latest version of Kartographisches Taschenbuch from the German Cartographic Society. Uniquely in Western Europe official mapping is the responsibility of each state in the Republic, only smaller scales are published by federal agencies. The other unique feature of German mapping is the inevitable difference between mapping standards in the former Federal and Democratic Republics, which maintained independent series and specifications in the years between 1945 and 1990. Prior to unification the 10 state survey offices, (Ländervermessungsamte) of the Federal Republic were wholly responsible for publication of topographic mapping at scales of 1:100,000 and larger, and also contributed to the federally produced smaller scale series. On the other side of the Iron Curtain, however, mapping was centralized, with military (Ausgabe Staat (AS)) and sanitized civilian (Ausgabe fϋr die Volkswirtschaft (AV)) editions in scale ranges from 1:10,000 to 1:1,000,000, following Soviet practice and completely unrelated to Western maps. These maps used sheet numbering and breakdown derived from the International map of the World and were printed as small format editions. In the years since reunification considerable progress has been made to integrate and update mapping of the five eastern Lander, with the AV editions gradually being replaced by AS versions, but with sheet lines and numbering being revised to comply with Western standards. This program has been carried out by state survey offices established in 1991 in each new Land, Eastern central agencies having been abolished, but it will be many years before a single national and uniform system is in place. Larger scale mapping may now be acquired through the local Ländesvermessungsamt.
Coordination of activities between the different Länder is carried out from the Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Vermessungsverwaltungen der Länder der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, a non-governmental committee of the state administrations attached to the Hessen survey office. The civilian federal national mapping agency is Bundesamt fϋr Kartographie und Geodäsie (BfKG), until 1997 Institut fϋr Angewandte Geodäsie (IfAG), with headquarters in Frankfurt-am-Main, offices in Berlin, Leipzig, and Potsdam and a satellite observation station at Kötzting. BfKG publishes the smaller scale topographic mapping of the Republic, carries out overseas mapping and geodetic cartographic and topographic research and acts as the national place name authority. It took over the small scale programs of the former East German Verwaltung fϋr Vermessungs- und Kartenwesen (VVK), which mapped the area of the Democratic Republic in the years between World War II and 1991.
Three current scales are maintained. The Topographische Übersichtskarte 1:200,000 (TÜK 200) covers Germany in 59 sheets, 12 of which are prepared by the Bavarian survey office. This map uses the Gauss─Krϋger projection, with the graticule and Gauss─Krϋger net shown at the margins, and shows relief with 25 m or 12.5 m contours. The 44 sheets covering the area of the former federal states are available as a normal edition, with relief shading and colored road infill, or as a four-color outline map without hill shading or coloured roads. An orographic edition is also published to show only relief and hydrology with names of physical and water features. Four larger format Umgebungskarten are also published including through-route town maps for the areas around Bremen, Hamburg, Frankfurt-am-Main and Stuttgart. Preliminary versions of the 15 sheets covering the eastern Lander have been issued, by adjusting and revising the small sheet East German topographic map formerly published by VVK, into the sheet system of the West German series. Two digital data sets are available at this resolution; raster scanned layered data and the structured data in the Digital Landschaftsmodell Deutschland.
Military mapping of the united Germany is carried out by the federal Armed Forces Geographic Office (Amt fϋr Militärisches Geowesen (AMILGeo). BfKG collaborates with AMILGeo in the production of 1:250,000 scale mapping of Germany in (Series 15010. The BfKG 1:500,000 Übersichtskarte (ÜK 500) uses the Lambert conformal conic projection and is published in four large-format sheets in conjunction with the AMILGeo. The normal edition is issued without UTM grid, a working map is published without hill shading, and an oro-hydrographic version shows only relief and hydrology with names of physical and water features. In addition a three-color administrative edition is issued. Raster versions of seven layers of data in this map are also available.
Germany is covered in a single sheet BfKG map at 1:1,000,000 scale. Five versions are available and have been extended to 15°E to cover the eastern Länder. These are a normal edition, an oro-hydrographic map, an administrative version, a landscape edition and a map showing the 1990 triangulation network. Raster versions of the layered data are available, and four different structured data sets are derived from this scale: administrative data sets for Landkreisen (NUTS 3 level) and Gemeinde (NUTS 5 level), a digital terrain model with 1 m grid resolution and a digital gazetteer. BfKG also still issues two sheets conforming to the International map of the World specification and five in a 1:2,500,000 scale world series.
Civilian topographic mapping at 1:100,000, 1:50,000 and 1:25,000 is available for the whole of the western Lander. The specification is based upon the Gauss-Krϋger projection with sheet lines following the graticule. Series have been color coded according to scale, (green for 1:25,000, blue for 1:50,000 and yellow-orange for 1:100,000) but are packaged differently by each state. There is usually a five-year revision cycle for these maps.
The 1:25,000 scale map (TK 25) started as a basic scale series in the former Federal Republic and shows relief with 10 m contours. It is usually issued in different versions; the three-color Normalausgabe (TK 25 N); a monochrome outline edition (TK 25 E); a Wanderwegen edition (TK 25 W); a version with administrative overprint (TK 25 V) and an orthophotomap (TK 25 L). The Normalausgabe is available flat or folded for the whole of Western Germany. TK 25 sheets each cover an area of 11.5 km x 11 km on the ground and are numbered by a four-digit coordinate reference, with northings appearing before eastings. In Eastern states conversion to full (TK 25) specification mapping is taking place; small sheet AS and AV editions are being recast on to western sheet lines and some state surveys are issuing new maps conforming fully to western symbolization. Much (TK 25) coverage of the East is, however, completely different mapping, being derived from four parent 1:10,000 scale sheets, and with 5 m contours. AS formatted series also continue to be available from eastern Ländervermessungamte, but are likely to be withdrawn as conversion progresses.
There is a similar pattern with 1:50,000 mapping, which requires 782 sheets for complete coverage. (TK 50) maps cover 23 km × 22 km blocks corresponding to four 1:25,000 sheets, and are numbered with a four-digit coordinate and the prefix L. The western specification has 10 m contours. The (TK 50) series is also issued in a number of different versions: the Normal edition (TK 50 N, a four-color map with green used for woodland); a footpath and cycling version (TK 50 WR); a footpath map (TK 50 W); a monochrome edition (TK 50 E); an administrative map (TK 50 V) and an oro-hydrographic version (TK 50 O). In addition there is a military edition from AMILGeo. Its 1:50,000 military coverage (Series M745) conforms to NATO specifications and uses the civilian (TK 50) map, but also incorporates a UTM grid and trilingual legend. The 216 sheets covering the eastern Länder were converted from military maps published in the former Democratic Republic, in the two years after unification. The content and symbol key were retained, including 10 m contours, but eastern sheet lines and numbers were adjusted to conform to (M745) specifications. Civilian 1:50,000 mapping of the east has been given a lower priority than other topographic scales, a similar conversion process to (TK 25) programs is being carried out by eastern states.
Larger scale mapping operates from different basic scales in east and west. Since 1937 data have been collected in Western Germany for publication of a basic scale map at 1:5,000. This Deutsche Grundkarte (DKG 5) is nearing completion for many Länder. Where complete, as in Niedersachsen, this is used as a base for the compilation of other derived series. Sheets cover 2 km × 2 km areas, relief is usually shown with 5 m contours. Different styles are published, many states are now compiling 1:5000 scale orthophotomaps, as well as Grundkarte line-maps. In the five eastern states basic scale mapping is published by the state survey offices at 1:10,000. Complete photogrammetric coverage of the former Democratic Republic was attained in 1969 in 6,150 five-color line maps, relief is shown in 1 m or 2.5 m contours.
The 1:5,000 scale map is the most important source for the compilation of the national medium-scale digital database Amtliches Topographische-Kartographisches Informationssystem (ATKIS). Work to capture structured data began in 1990, and progressed fastest in Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz and Niedersachsen. ATKIS comprises a digital landscape model DLM 25/1, built up on a national basis, and completed for object positions in 1995. Digital terrain data in this first stage were held in separate databases, and by the end of 1997 DLM 25 data were available for the whole of Germany. The second stage of ATKIS will see the merging of data sets, so as to facilitate the generation of hard copy mapping from the database, and a new specification is being fixed for the 1:25,000 graphic product, with more colors and a more open and legible design. Some of the first graphic products using this specification and incorporating urban building height data were released by the Brandenburg mapping agency in 1999.
Soviet military topographic mapping of Germany is available at the following scales: 1:1,000,000 (7 sheets, complete coverage, published 1979-1990); 1:500,000 (17 sheets, complete coverage, published 1979-1995); 1:200,000 (98 sheets, complete coverage, published 1972-1992); 1:100,000 (341 sheets, complete coverage, published 1959-1991); 1:50,000 (1,229 sheets, complete coverage, published 1980-1990) and city (1:10,000 to 1:25,000) topographic mapping of 138 major cities from Bochum to Zwickau published between 1949 and 1991. These products are available in print, digital raster and digital vector GIS formats from East View Geospatial.
Map publishing by the Länder authorities
Official agencies in the different Länder publish topographic coverage at scales of 1:100,000 and larger. These series are described above in our German section, because specifications are shared across the whole of Western, or Eastern Germany. The state authorities also maintain differing ranges of Übersichtskarten (general maps), and repackage topographic material into a number of Sonderkarten aimed at different markets and with varying overprinted data. Gebietskarten usually involve recasting of smaller scale topographic coverage onto more convenient regular local sheet lines. Series of Kreiskarten or Bezirkskarten are published with topographic or administrative boundary data issued for each administrative unit in the state.
Landesvermessungsamt Baden-Wϋrttemberg (LVAB-W) is responsible for topographic and cadastral surveying in the state. LVAB-W publishes sheets conforming to national standards in scales between 1:5,000 and 1:200,000. Ranges of Übersichtskarten at 1:200,000 and 1:500,000 are maintained in a number of different editions, and small scale relief maps and a state gazetteer are issued. There is a complete state coverage of specially overprinted versions of standard topographic mapping aimed at walkers and the tourist market and a number of different tourist themes are available at 1:200,000 scale.
The state mapping authority, the Bayerisches Landesvermessungsamt (BLVA), publishes 751 sheets in the national topographic programs. Amongst its larger scale programs are a 1:5,000 scale digital orthophoto map derived from 1:15,000 scale aerial coverage which was completed in 1998. Thirty-five special Umgebungskarten are published with overprinted tourist information, the 1:50,000 scale sheets offer about 50% coverage and include a UTM grid for leisure GPS use. A 40-year old 38-sheet 1:100,000 scale land condition map is still available. Smaller scale single sheet mapping of the Land is available at five different scales. Digital data from these maps include CD-ROM versions of vector-based ATKIS 500 and ATKIS 25 data, raster versions of all published maps and DTM data from 1:25,000 mapping. Cadastral data from BLVA in the Digital Flurkarte is made available from a central internet hub, in a collaboration with commercial vendor Wenninger GmbH.
The Landesvermessungsamt Brandenburg (LVAB) publishes digital and hard copy topographic mapping. Among the Gebietskarten are two repackaged versions of 1:100.000 scale topographic coverage, 13 Kreiskarten cover the 14 Landkreise in Brandenburg, and are published as six-color maps or outline versions. The second map at this scale is the six-color and eight-sheet Regionalkarte. Administrative mapping is published at 1:300,000 and 1:500,000 scales. Water sports, and walking maps at 1:25,000 and 1:50,000 scales are also available for significant areas of Brandenburg.
The Amt fϋr Geoinformation und Vermessung Hamburg (AGVH) is responsible for topographic and cadastral surveying and mapping of the area of the city. A wide variety of urban, administrative, thematic digital and facsimile maps are published. 1:5000 mapping is available as conventional Grundkarte and as an orthophoto map series. 1:10,000 scale mapping is issued as full-color or three-color versions and five different kinds of 1:20,000 and 1:50,000 maps are published. A 1:25,000 scale land use map is also maintained. Regional and Übersichtskarten are also issued. Complete digital coverage is maintained in five product ranges: four offer vector coverage: the Stadtgrundkarte (DSGK) captured from 1:1,000 mapping, the DK5 digital map from the DK5 Grundkarte, DISK from 1:20,000 coverage, and a regional map from 1:150,000 mapping. In addition TIFF format digital aerial photographic data are derived from 1:5,000 aerial coverage. The Stadtkarte von Hamburg on CD-ROM is an electronic atlas of the city bringing together raster versions of 1:20,000 scale mapping with 1:150,000 coverage, viewing and search software and numerous indexing. Amongst the thematic mapping of the city is a traffic map of the city center, a seven-sheet land use planning series, as well as single-sheet coverage of major roads and nature conservation sites.
The Hessisches Landesvermessungsamt (HLVA) is the state agency responsible for topographic and cadastral surveying in Hessen. In addition to the usual range of national topographic maps and digital data sets HLVA issues three smaller scales of Topographische Gebietskarten, four versions at 1:200,000, administrative and normal versions at 1:500,000 and 1:1,000,000. A special series of 1:50,000 maps with tourist overprints provides complete Land coverage. A complex variety of historical facsimiles of earlier series mapping of Hessen is also available.
The Landesvermessungsamt Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (LVAM-V) has been responsible for official mapping since 1992. In addition to the usual range of topographic series it publishes Gebietskarten extracted from standard bases and rebadged in larger format sheets with different overprints. 1:100,000 scale Kreiskarten are published for the whole of the state and single sheet coverage at 1:250,000 is published as a general map, a road map, a map of natural protected areas, and as two administrative versions. Other monochrome small scale administrative mapping shows only boundaries rivers and settlements.
The Lower Saxony state mapping agency is the Landesvermessung + Geobasisinformation Niedersachsen (LGN) (formerly Niedersächsisches Landesverwaltungsamt Landesvermessung), which moved to a new headquarters in 1998. The usual range of Western topographic series are published, and an active digital program is in progress, including raster versions of scales between 1:5,000 and 1:500,000, available at three different resolutions. A CD-ROM brings together a number of these digital maps, including complete 1:100,000, 1:500,000, and 1:1,000,000 coverage, as well as 15,000 place names and interrogation and viewing software. The first stage of ATKIS DLM data is now complete for the state, and DGM 50 digital terrain data are also available. DGM 5 terrain data have been captured from orthophoto maps and Grundkarte and were to be completed by the millennium. Amongst the Gebietskarten are a 16-sheet 1:100,000 regional series, repackaging TK 100 mapping. A photographically enlarged version of this base material is used in the 1:75,000 scale cycling map of the state, published in 28 sheets. Other tourist mapping is also available for some areas of Lower Saxony, including 1:50,000 scale maps for walkers. Übersichtskarten include 1:500,000 coverage available as a normal edition, with administrative overprint and as a hill-shaded edition. 1:200,000 scale mapping derived from national coverage includes a four-sheet Bezirkskarte, together with a recently published coastal waters map.
The Landesvermessungsamt Nordrhein-Westfalen (LVANR-W) participates in the standard federal topographic production programs and has been very active in digital conversion. All sheets in scales from 1:5,000 through to 1:500,000 are also available as raster data. Administrative boundary vector data and digital terrain data are also complete and ATKIS coverage in the DLM 25 is available for the whole of Nordrhein-Westfalen. There are a number of non-standard mapping programs, including a 1:10,000 scale enlargement of TK 25 mapping. A 1:50,000 scale Freizeitkarte is published in 26 sheets for the whole state with tourist overprint and this scale is also used in a specially formatted series for Nature Parks. 32 Kreiskarten are published giving complete coverage. 1:250,000 single-sheet coverage of the state is available in four different themes and six different versions of a 1:500,000 state map are also published. Amongst the more recent digital products is a CD-ROM packaging complete raster scanned 1:50,000, 1:200,000, 1:500,000 and 1:1,000,000 scale coverage with administrative boundaries, 25,000 place names and search and viewing software.
The Landesvermessungsamt Rheinland-Pfalz (LVAR-P) participates in national topographic programs and issues a variety of Sonderkarten of the state, as well as collaborating in the publication of official mapping of its smaller neighbour Saarland. Coverage of Rheinland-Pfalz includes 49 special 1:25,000 tourist maps, 12 1:50,000 special sheets and complete coverage in a three-sheet bicycle map. In addition a range of 18 smaller scale state maps is maintained, including recent image maps also covering Saarland, as well as a very wide variety of facsimiles of historical maps of the state. Good progress has been made on digital coverage, DLM 25/1 digital landscape model data are complete and 1:5,000 orthophoto coverage of the whole Land is being used for compilation of ATKIS data. Raster versions of topographic mapping are also available.
The Landesvermessungsamt des Saarlandes (LVAS) is responsible for official topographic surveying and mapping. The state publishes the usual range of standard topographic products, and in addition 1:10,000 scale enlargements of 1:25,000 scale mapping. A special single 1:100,000 scale map is regularly revised and the state is covered in a 1:250,000 scale image map compiled jointly with LVAR-P. Raster data for the whole state is available at 1:25,000, 1:50,000 and 1:100,000 scales and a digital relief model (DGM5), derived from the Grundkarte, is well advanced.
Landesvermessungsamt Sachsen (LVASa) publishes topographic and cadastral mapping of the State and also issues other thematic mapping. Like other Eastern Länder, Sachsen is covered in a mix of preunification, amended eastern maps and entirely new products. Topographische Gebietskarten include 1:200,000 scale Übersichtskarte in normal and outline editions, and 1:300,000 administrative coverage. Kreiskarten are published at 1:50,000 or 1:100,000 in topographic or administrative editions. 1:25,000 walking maps are published for southern areas. A recent initiative has been a four-color land use map of the state, derived from digital satellite data and complete in 18 sheets. Active digital programs are in progress. Raster versions of different layers from 1:10,000, 1:25,000, 1:50,000, 1:100,000 and 1:200,000 scales may be acquired and vector data from 1:200,000 administrative mapping is also available. DTM data coverage from 1:25,000 source material was completed for the whole state in 1997.
The Landesamt fϋr Landesvermessung und Datenverarbeitung Sachsen-Anhalt (LAVuDS-A) carries out topographic and photogrammetric surveying of the state and publishes the usual range of standard Eastern topographic series. It is one of the most advanced of the eastern Länder in terms of digital conversion. Amongst the Gebietskarten are general maps of the state at 1:200,000 issued in three sheets in normal and administrative editions, and a single-sheet 1:300,000 Übersichtskarte published as a normal edition, and as four-color administrative editions with violet Kreise or Gemeinde boundaries. These boundaries come from ATKIS vector data, which are also available in digital form as the Digital gefϋhrte Verwaltungsgrenzen product. 1:100,000 six-color Regionalkarten cover Sachsen-Anhalt in six sheets and tourist mapping at 1:50,000 and 1:75,000 is also available for limited areas. First stage ATKIS DLM coverage was completed in 1996, and by 2000, second stage conversion with 118 objects was available for the whole state. Digital relief data are available and captured from the 1:10,000 topographic map. Raster versions of all topographic series are also published in TIFF format and digital cadastral mapping is also well advanced.
The Landesvermessungsamt Schleswig-Holstein (LVAS-H) issues the usual range of topographic series and participates in the development of the ATKIS and ALK programmes. Its small scale output includes 1:250,000 scale mapping issued as a specially formatted general map of the state, as a road map, and as an administrative version and a 1:500,000 scale general map. Five color Kreiskarten at 1:75,000 or 1:100,000 scale cover the whole state and are available with or without UTM grid, and administrative boundaries. Much of Schleswig-Holstein is covered in specially formatted tourist maps overprinted onto TK 25 and TK 50 bases.
The Thϋringer Landesverwaltungsamt-Landesvermessungsamt (TLVA) in the Ministry of the Interior compiles and publishes hard copy and digital topographic mapping and aerial coverage of the state. The usual range of Eastern topographic series are published: 1:10,000 scale AS coverage is available as normal, monochrome and orthophoto editions. 1:25,000 coverage is also available as raster scanned layers, and scanned data are also derived from 1:100,000 scale coverage. First stage DLM 25 coverage was completed by 1997 and a digital terrain model of the state from 1:50,000 data is complete. Only a limited range of Sonderkarten is available, but a wide range of Gebietskarten is published including 1:100,000 scale Kreiskarten and large format Regionalkarten, both of which use the Eastern style topographic base. Übersichtskarten are published at 1:250,000 in normal, administrative and Gemeinde editions.
The Federal Hydrographic Agency is the Bundesamt fϋr Seeschiffahrt und Hydrographie (BSH). It maintains a range of about 1,000 nautical charts covering the North and Baltic Seas as well as the Atlantic, Red Sea and Mediterranean. Data from charts have been brought together into a GIS which provides a common source for the derivation of new customized chart types and for the release of Electronic Chart and Display and Information data. BSH is an active partner in work on the International Chart Series of the International Hydrographic Organization. Civilian aeronautical charting of Germany is the responsibility of the Deutsche Flugsicherung, Offenbach. Publication includes eight sheet 1:500,000 coverage conforming to ICAO specifications.
The federal earth science mapping agency in Germany is the Bundesanstalt fϋr Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BfGR) in Hannover. It compiles and publishes geoscientific mapping of Germany including mapping programs at scales of 1:200,000 and smaller. The 1:200,000 scale map is a collaborative project between BfGR and the provincial geological mapping agencies and is approaching completion for the western Lander. Eastern Germany was covered in 1:200,000 scale series from the Zentrales Geologisches Institut (ZGI), with complete coverage of the former DDR in 29 sheets, published for six different themes: quaternary cover; geology without quaternary cover; a combination of drift and solid geology; hydrogeology and two hydrochemical editions. New mapping of eastern areas conforming to the Western specification is being carried out by BfGR and two sheets have so far been published. Two-sheet 1:1,000,000 scale solid geological coverage has been regularly revised; the latest (1993) edition covers the whole of the united Germany and is also available as digital data. This is the first geoscientific map at this scale, more digital themes are planned and a hydrogeological map has already been published. Other small scale mapping of the area of the former DDR includes 1:500,000 scale geological, tectonic, and geophysical maps. A tectonic atlas of North-West Germany at 1:300,000 scale has also recently been published. In addition to its national role BfGR continues to participate in international earth science mapping programs, including UNESCO European series, and also publishes many maps of third world countries, issued with Geologisches Jahrbuch.
Larger scale earth science mapping is carried out by the geological survey offices of the different Lander, as well as single-sheet smaller scale mapping of each state. Geological coverage is less comprehensive than in topographic programs and specifications are more varied. The most extensive mapping is published at 1:25,000. Nearly 2,000 of the 3,000 sheets required for complete coverage have been published. Thematic earth science programs have also been carried out, especially in former East Germany.
Map publishing by the Länder authorities
There is a greater diversity amongst the products of the 16 state earth science mapping agencies, with less central control over specifications. Other significant official mapping at a state level is carried out by a number of environmental, resource or planning agencies, with even greater variation in practice.
The state earth science mapping agency is the Landesamt fϋr Geologie Rohstoffe und Bergbau Baden-Wϋrttemberg (LGRBBW). 1:25,000 geological coverage is almost complete, but mapping standards vary across the state. Preliminary new digital mapping is being compiled and is available in hard copy or as ARC/INFO format data. Amongst smaller scale output the 1:500,000 scale map has been digitized and are also available as digital data at scales between 1:300,000 and 1:2,000,000.
The Bayerisches Geologisches Landesamt (GLAB) was established in Mϋnchen in 1948 and carries out geological and soil mapping. About half of the land is covered in its active 1:25,000 scale geological program; other large scale geological series offer more partial coverage, but include hydrogeological mapping. More limited soil coverage was established in the 1970s. A new version of GLAB’s single-sheet state geological map was recently published.
The Bayerisches Landesamt fϋr Wasserwirtschaft (BLW) and other divisions of the Bayerisches Staatsministerium fϋr Landesentwicklung und Umweltfragen publish a number of small scale hydrological themes.
The Landesamt fϋr Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe Brandenburg (LGRB) was founded in 1992 and, like other earth science state agencies, it distributes mapping prepared by central East German agencies prior to reunification. Complete coverage of the state is available at 1:25,000 scale in the Bodenschätzungskarte and three versions of 1:50,000 scale earth science mapping are also published; the hydrogeological map is complete and some areas are available in quaternary or solid geological editions. New smaller scale mapping has been prepared by LGRB, including 1:300 000 coverage for geology, environmental geology, and industrial minerals.
The Geologisches Landesamt Hamburg (GLAH) produces a 1:10,000 scale engineering geology map as well as 1:50,000 Übersichtskarten for engineering geology, quaternary stratigraphy and hydrogeology. A seven-sheet 1:25,000 scale geological series is in progress, and is accompanied by sheet explanations.
The Hessisches Landesamt fϋr Bodenforschung (HLfB) carries out basic scale geological and soil mapping of Hessen and has also published a range of smaller scale mapping of the state. 1:25,000 geological coverage is being published at about 10 new maps a year and is nearly complete. Little progress has been made on the soil map of the same scale. Small scale digital mapping of the state has been compiled to show soil, geology, heavy ores, and hydrogeology.
The Geologisches Landesamt Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (GLAM-V) is the provincial agency responsible for earth science research, including the publication of geological mapping. Old 1:25,000 scale coverage is still available for some areas and a new program at this scale has been started. Other new mapping includes an eight-sheet 1:200,000 quaternary series, completed for half of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, and small scale coverage of the state published as single sheets for quaternary deposits, solid geology and soil.
Niedersächsisches Landesamt fϋr Bodenforschung (NLfB) shares headquarters, and publication infrastructure with the national earth science mapping agency Bundesanstalt fϋr Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BfGR) in Hannover. It also carries out geological mapping for the federal state of Bremen. 1:25,000 scale geological and soil mapping programs are in progress, both use the TK 25 topographic base and sheet lines and were started towards the end of the 1950s. A geoscientific map of natural resources in Lower Saxony was completed between 1978 and 1991. Sheets use the TK 200 topographic sheet lines and are published for up to 12 different themes and maps for each quadrangle. 1:500,000 single sheet coverage of the state is published for general geology, quaternary deposits and soil.
The Geologisches Landesamt Nordrhein-Westfalen (GLANR-W) established in 1957 carries out geoscientific mapping of the state. Amongst all the state geological mapping agencies it is probably the most active in digital map compilation and publication. 1:25,000 scale mapping now covers about 80% of the state, with about five new sheets appearing every year. 1:100,000 scale geological coverage with sheet explanations was completed in 1993, and these 20 hard copy maps are currently being captured for release as digital data. The eight-sheet 1:200,000 scale Geologische Übersichtskarte is also complete. A new program of tourist geological mapping has also been started for national park areas. GLANR-W also carries out soil mapping of Nordrhein-Westfalen. The 72 sheet 1:50,000 soil map was completed in 1995 and all sheets are also available in digital form. A digital hydrological series at this scale is in progress. Other mapping includes large scale engineering geological coverage and several small scale themes for the state.
The Geologisches Landesamt Rheinland-Pfalz (GLAR-P) moved to new headquarters in Mainz in March 1997. Two large scale series are compiled, both offer only partial 1:25,000 coverage. Geological mapping at this scale is more widely dispersed than 1:25,000 soil coverage which focuses upon southwestern areas of Rheinland-Pfalz adjoining the Rhine valley.
The Landesamt fϋr Umweltschutz Abteilung Geologie (LUS) maintains 1:25,000 scale earth science mapping of Saarland and is the provincial geoscientific authority. Single-sheet 1:100,000 hydrogeological mapping is published for four themes and a hydrological map of Saarland is also published.
The Sächisches Landesamt fϋr Umwelt und Geologie (SLAUG), established in 1991, is responsible for the publication of state geological mapping. Most available series are excerpts from series covering the former Democratic Republic. 1:25,000 scale coverage was completed in 1972 in the Spezialkarte and most sheets are still available. Color copies of ZGI 1:50,000 hydrogeological mapping are also still available for the whole state and 1:200,000 hydrogeological mapping covers Sachsen in eight sheets, with up to four themes available for each area. More recent effort has been devoted to updated state-based single sheet soil, quaternary, seismic, magnetic, gravity and geological coverage, larger scale themes for mineraliferous areas, and the publication of thematic earth science mapping such as a 1:200,000 scale water map of the state. Recent larger scale initiatives include 1:50,000 mapping areas in the north of Sachsen.
The Geologisches Landesamt Sachsen Anhalt (GLAS-A) was established in 1991. It markets earth science coverage established during the period of central ZGI mapping, with 1:25,000 scale coverage of almost all Sachsen-Anhalt, various 1:100,000 sheets, 1:200,000 hydrogeological coverage and several themes published at 1:500,000 for the whole of the former DDR. New 1:25,000 sheets are also being compiled since 1991, to update the often superseded coverage of the state, most of which dates from the period between 1900 and 1945. Initial emphasis in the GLAS-A publication program was given to producing small-scale state earth science coverage. Five themes have been published since 1991 at 1:400,000 to cover geology, soil, geotopes, gravity and hydrogeology and are all issued double-sided with an explanation on the reverse of the sheet. Other new programs include quaternary mapping at 1:200,000 and 1:50,000 scales, a 1:50,000 bedrock geology map covering the Halle area and two engineering geology maps at 1:10,000 scale, one of which is issued as a digital product.
The Landesamt fϋr Natur und Umwelt (LANUS-H) is responsible for the publication of several map programs. These include both geological and soil surveys carried out by the former Geologisches Landesamt. 1:25,000 scale geological and soil programs are well advanced, with more patchy coverage at this scale also available for land use capability and in a map showing the extent of post-Ice Age deposits. Larger scale soil and engineering geological coverage is also issued. Among smaller-scale geoscientific coverage are five themes available at 1:250,000, four-sheet coverage of hydrogeology and pre-quaternary deposits at 1:200,000 scale and single-sheet mapping of several themes at 1:500,000 scale.
Thϋringer Landesanstalt fϋr Geologie (TLG) was established in 1991 as the state earth science agency. It distributes the very long established 1:25,000 scale Geologische Karte, published in 166 sheets, and is issuing newly revised coverage of some sheets of this map. Most series were established as part of centrally produced East German geological coverage and are still available. These include 1:100,000 and 1:200,000 scale coverage for geology, and engineering geology and 1:50,000 quaternary, geological and hydrogeological coverage.
A soil mapping program was started in 1986 and has resulted in complete 1:200,000 scale state wide coverage as well as an active 1:25,000 scale program.
The Bundesanstalt fϋr Naturschutz (BfN) (formerly the Bundesforschungsanstalt fϋr Naturschutz und Landschaft-sökologie) is based in Bonn and is responsible for nature conservation and landscape management, including the publication of several vegetation maps of parts of Germany. The Umweltbundesamt (UBA) is the federal environment agency and the focal point for Germany’s contributions to the CORINE program. Its environmental GIS supports thematic mapping of the state of the environment, and the visualization of multiple data combinations. Maps are output for publication in regular UBA series.
Other environmental mapping is carried out by the Landesanstalt fϋr Umweltschutz Baden-Wϋrttemberg (LfUB-W) including 1:50,000 scale coverage of wetland conservation areas, an atlas of alternative energy and small scale coverage of vegetation and nature conservation.
1:200,000 scale environmental planning coverage of the area around Berlin has been compiled by the Ministerium fϋr Umwelt, Naturschutz und Raumordnung des Landes Brandenburg (MUNRLB).
Other environmental mapping of Hessen is prepared by the Hessisches Landesanstalt fϋr Umwelt (HLFU), including drinking water protection zonation maps, and by the Hessische Landesanstalt fϋr Forsteinrichtung Waldforschung und Waldökologie (HFLWW).
The Bundesforschungsanstalt fϋr Landeskunde und Raumordnung (BfLR) monitors spatial developments and is responsible for regional planning in the Federal Republic. It prepared the 11-volume Atlas zu Raumentwicklung published in instalments throughout the 1980s, and has also issued administrative mapping of Landkreise and Bezirke. A long-established 1:200,000 scale series mapping natural regions onto a topographic base is also still available.
The Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) publishes meteorological mapping of Germany, including daily weather map coverage. Smaller scale publication include provincial climate atlases.
The Niedersächsisches Landesamt fϋr Ökologie (NLÖ) brings together a wide variety of environmental research carried out from five different headquarters across the state. Three divisions compile mapping. The Abteilung Naturschutz in Hannover maintains 1:50,000 programs for the whole of Lower Saxony to show specially protected environments and habitats in the state. The Abteilung Wasserwirtschaft, Gewässerschutz und Abfallwirtschaft in Hildesheim publishes catchment management plans, a 1:50,000 hydrographic map of the state and several smaller scale single-theme maps relating to water pollution and quality. The Forschungsstelle Kϋste in Norderney publishes maps of marshland areas at 1:25,000 and 1:5,000 scales.
The Landesumweltamt Nordrhein-Westfalen (LUANR-W) has been in operation since 1994 and brings together a wide variety of environmental functions formerly carried out by different state agencies. It issues maps relating to surface water and discharge, groundwater, water quality and air pollution. A 1:25,000 scale series on an outline topographic base is available for the whole state to show gauging stations and catchments, 1:300,000 scale water coverage is mapped with major places or administrative boundaries and as a numbered catchment map, or with gauging stations overprinted on a hill-shaded base. Precipitation maps are also published. Hydrological 1:25,000 coverage is maintained for the flatter western parts of the state and groundwater levels have been mapped on 1:50,000 scale base maps for 3 different dates. More recent mapping has used digital techniques, including 1:50,000 scale water conservation maps and seven-color water quality mapping at 1:300,000.
The Landesanstalt fϋr Ökologie, Landschaftsentwicklung und Forstplanung (LÖLFNR-W) compiled forest mapping of Nordrhein-Westfalen in the 1980s. The statistical agency Landesamt fϋr Datenverarbeitung und Statistik Nordrhein-Westfalen (LDSNR-W) has published administrative and thematic mapping.
The Akademie fϋr Raumforschung und Landesplanung (AfRL) carried out a number of thematic mapping projects between 1960 and 1982 including the publication of a multi-volume regional planning atlas, with volumes for the different western Länder.
The Institut fϋr Länderkunde (IfL) (formerly the Zentralanschluss fϋr Deutsche Landeskunde) was reformed in Leipzig after unification and is charged with the study of changing regional geographies of central Europe. It is preparing plans for a new national atlas of Germany, which will comprise 12 published thematic parts, to be released over a six to eight year period. The first volume covering German society and the German nation was published late in 1999. A parallel program of electronic atlas publication is envisaged: the first pilot version of an electronic edition was released in October 1997. The electronic versions of the atlas on CD-ROM will comprise static versions of the maps published in the printed atlases and also interactive mapping of data.
The Institut fϋr Angewändte Forschung has compiled a CD-based digital environmental atlas of Baden-Wϋrttemberg, which brings together 29 ecological and landscape map layers with viewing and interrogation software. This is published by Springer Verlag.
The Senatsverwaltung fϋr Stadtentwicklung Umweltschutz und Technologie (SSUT) was established in 1981 with a remit of ecological planning in West Berlin. It published a two-volume environmental atlas of the city in the mid-1980s, which was updated and extended to East Berlin with the publication of a three-volume hard copy set between 1994 and 1996.
In 1997 the Umweltbehörde Hamburg released the Digitaler Umweltatlas Hamburg an electronic environmental atlas of the city on CD-ROM.
Länder authorities also maintain cadastral frameworks. A diversity of hard copy scales have been used, and Flurkarten as large as 1:1,000 in scale are maintained by state surveying offices and by city authorities across Germany. Digital developments are facilitating the linking of property registers and household data to land information systems. Since the late 1970s an automated real estate map of Germany has been built up by digitizing of cadastral plans. This was designated and standardized in 1992 as the Automatisierte Liegenschaftskarte (ALK) project, and merges data from published mapping with numerical survey information, so as to allow more efficient maintenance of the property cadastre and generation of hard copy mapping.
Abteilung V- Vermessungswesen of the Senatsverwaltung fϋr Bauen Wohnen und Verkehr (SfBWV) carries out surveying and mapping of Berlin. Its responsibilities include the remapping of eastern areas of the city and the maintenance of an impressive range of hard copy and digital plans with current scales at 1:1,000, 1:5,000, 1:10,000 and 1:50,000. SfBWV collaborates with its surrounding state surveying authority the Landesvermessungsamt Brandenburg in the provision of other mapping of the city. Raster versions of 1:5,000, 1:10,000 and 1:50,000 maps are available on CD-ROM packaged with viewing and interrogation software. Amongst the range of special maps are geological coverage at 1:10,000, 1:50,000 and 1:100,000, a water use map and a variety of administrative and urban redevelopment mapping.
The area of the Freiehansestadt Bremen is mapped by the Kataster- und Vermessungsverwaltung (KVB) in the Senator fϋr das Bauwesen. The history of land surveying in the city can be traced back to the establishment of a cadastral office in 1835. There is now complete 1:2,500, 1:5,000, 1:10,000 and 1:20,000 scale coverage; the latter is available with various overprints including administrative, cadastral and distance data. There are three 1:10,000 scale engineering geology series and four themes of 1:25,000 scale hydrological mapping. All of these maps are also available as digital data. The area of the city state may also be covered in mapping from various Niedersachsen agencies, and in national topographic programs.
The Hessisches Ministerium fϋr Wirtschaft Verkehr und Landesentwicklung (HMWVL) produces regularly updated state development plans which are published on photo-reduced 1:50,000 topographic bases and map settlement, land use, environmental and transport planning.
Deutsche Bahn in Mainz publishes a wide range of maps of the German railway network. Their range includes a series of 34 1:300,000 scale operations maps.
ADAC Verlag GmbH publishes a large range of maps and atlases for motorists including the annually revised Autoatlas Deutschland Europa. Complete European coverage is maintained at several scales. A large range of over 500 street maps is published mapping every German town with more than 30,000 inhabitants.
ADFC Bundesverband eV publishes cycling mapping at 1:150,000 scale covering Germany in 27 sheets, which employs an enlarged 1:200,000 scale official base enhanced with cycling route data collected by members. Since 1995 a range of 1:50,000 or 1:75,000 scale regional maps has been in progress.
Bacher Verlag GmbH concentrates upon customizing commercial maps for marketing, and markets the Regiograph GIS.
Berndtson & Berndtson (B&B) publish travel maps and town maps of overseas cities.
The Bertelsmann publishing group owns Falk Verlag and RV and continues to publish a range of internationally respected reference atlases in the New World edition, also available with CD-ROM, or as multi-media interactive electronic versions.
Bollmann Bildkarten Verlag GmbH issues a range of about 125 isometric city maps, covering German towns and a few other cities.
CAS Software GmbH collaborate with PTV in the provision of digital route planning software and data.
CCV Centrum Cartrographie Verlag GmbH produces a wide range of conventional map products for the recreational market and offers internet based map design solutions.
DDS Digital Data Services publishes digital data sets relating to postcodes and administrative geographies of Germany, as well as road networks and a range of three digital gazetteers.
The Deutscher Alpenverein (DAV) produces high quality topographic mapping of German and Austrian Alpine areas, in association with the Austrian Alpine Club. These are mostly at 1:25,000, with 20 m contours and show walking routes and/or ski-touring routes. In addition a range of Himalayan and Andean mapping is also published.
Falk Verlag AG was formed by the merger in 1997 of RV Reise und Verkehrsverlag and the town map specialist Falk Verlag. The Falk range continues to be published under the label Falk, and includes an internationally respected range of city maps with domestic and international coverage, and motoring maps of Germany and Europe. An increasing number of these products are now also available as electronic versions on CD-ROM in the StreetPilot, City Guide and Euroroute ranges.
Fritsch Landkartenverlag publishes outdoor recreation maps, including walking maps, winter-sports maps and cycling maps, concentrating upon the Bavarian countryside between Frankfurt and Innsbruck.
Gebrϋder Borntraeger publishes overseas mapping sponsored by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, including the Afrika Kartenwerk series
Geocenter the world’s largest map wholesaler also acts as the main or sole distributor for several German commercial publishers, including RV and Falk-Verlag AG, and for some official earth science and topographic products.
GEODATA markets a range of digital map data, and GIS products.
GISCAD Institut also publishes digital map data.
GSV Städteatlas Verlag issues atlases of 91 historic towns across Germany.
Harms-IC-Verlag publishes winter sports mapping and other tourist maps, notably of the Greek islands.
Hartmann-Plan specializes in the commercial mapping of Hamburg, Schleswig Holstein and Niedersachsen, with a range of town maps, road maps, Kreiskarten and walking maps available as printed maps and on its Web page.
Haupka Verlag issues complete 1:100,000 coverage of Germany for cyclists as well as other tourist and road maps of the country, and administrative mapping of Austria.
Heinz Fleischmann GmbH issues Kompass walking maps, which extend over much of Germany, Austria and Northern Italy. Other products include smaller scale cycling maps.
Kartenwerk Heide compiles local mapping of Schleswig Holstein for the leisure market, including coastal and island maps and town mapping.
Karto + Grafik Verlagsgesellschaft GmbH publishes a very useful range of tourist maps of overseas areas in the Hildebrands Urlaubskarte series.
Kartographischer Verlag Reinhard Ryborsch (Ryborsch) publishes a range of maps of tourist destinations, and small scale continental and world maps.
Klett-Perthes International publishes maps for the educational market, including a very large international coverage of contemporary and historical wall maps. Its catalogue includes mapping published by Haack and the Justus Perthes organization in Gotha.
Landkarten-Verlag J. Kronast concentrates upon the compilation and publication of administrative area and town maps of Bayern and Baden Wϋrttemberg.
Mairs Geographischer Verlag is one of the largest commercial map publishers in Germany. Its long established and renowned 1:200,000 Generalkarte is annually revised, and maintained for the whole of Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Italy, the Czech and Slovak Republics, Denmark, and Benelux, with an extending coverage of other tourist destinations. Standard and large sheet versions are available. Mairs produces Shell road maps and atlases, including the Grosse Shell Atlas issued from 1997 with an accompanying CD-ROM-based electronic routeplanner. A wide variety of Marco Polo road and city maps are issued and include single-sheet coverage of each European country, and 1:100,000 Freizeitkarte covering Germany in 64 sheets. Panorama maps and JRO globes are also published and Mairs issues a wide variety of products on CD-ROM, packaging route-planning software with raster mapping, place names from Mϋllers Grosses Ortsbuch, and multi-media tourist information. A seven set CD-based product offers higher resolution mapping based on Generalkarte data. Mairs also distributes products from other publishers, notably ADFC, ADAC, Haupka, Ravenstein, and Kompass, and bought the Falk group in 1998.
Microm Gesellschaft fϋr Mikromarketing GmbH markets raster versions of officially published 1:50,000 scale coverage of urban areas, and 1:200,000 scale mapping of the whole country on CD-ROM. Digital boundary maps and marketing data sets are also produced.
Nelles Verlag publishes an important range of tourist mapping, first established in 1982 and concentrating upon relief-based mapping of Asian countries, but with an increasingly world-wide coverage. Nelles also distribute the Schneider trekking maps of Nepal, and a few city maps.
Pharus Verlag publishes town mapping of Berlin.
Pietruska Verlag und Geodatenbank GmbH concentrates upon the publication of leisure maps for walkers and cyclists covering the south-western parts of Germany and in 1996 launched a range of CD-ROM based town maps and information systems for towns in Baden Wϋrttemberg.
Post und Ortsbuchverlag Mϋller produces the most useful place name listing in Germany, the annually revised Mϋllers Grosses Deutsches Ortsbuch which includes 125,000 names, together with population data, postal codes and administrative geographies.
PTV Planungsbϋro Transport und Verkehr GmbH maintain a number of CD-based route planning products, for Germany and Europe.
R V Reise und Verkehrsverlag is part of the Falk-Verlag AG group owned by Bertelsmann. They publish one of the most comprehensive ranges of maps for the tourist and motoring markets, including 1:200,000 mapping of Germany published as separate sheets, or in Autoatlas Deutschland. RV also issues walking and cycling maps and a wide variety of tourist maps, with 1:300,000 and 1:800,000 coverage of European countries and world-wide coverage in series at 1:4,000,000 and 1:2,000,000 scales. Town mapping of major centers in Germany is also published, as well as European capitals. Digital versions of Autoatlas Deutschland are published on CD-ROM, with some separate versions for different Lander becoming available, and CD-ROM versions of four urban atlases are also published.
Ravenstein Verlag GmbH publishes a 1:250,000 road map of Germany, Northern France and the Benelux countries, available as atlases or map sheets, as well as smaller scale maps for motorists and postcode mapping of Germany. A range of about 70 international travel maps is also issued.
RECO concentrates upon the publication of a range of town maps.
Regio Relief Edition established in 1994 is a producer of 3-D raised-relief maps.
Relief & Profil Verlag compiles raised relief mapping of a number of European countries.
E.Schweizerbart’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung publishes a variety of thematic maps, including important international geological coverage, and the major regional program appearing in the Atlas Ost-und Sϋdosteuropa series.
StadtlNFO Verlag GmbH compiles urban mapping of Berlin and Brandenburg, published as printed plans and atlases, on CD-ROM and as Web maps.
Städte-Verlag E v Wagner und J Mitterhuber is probably the most important publisher of town mapping in Germany. It maintains a range of over 900 indexed and regularly revised town maps covering most urban centers in Germany and Austria. In addition to these streetfinders Städte-Verlag issues about 250 Kreis- und Freizeitkarten, mostly at 1:75,000 scale and showing walking, cycling or skiing routes, but also including larger-scale town maps.
Stiefel Wandkartenverlag publishes a wide range of wall maps including double sided coverage of each Land featuring political and relief maps
Verlag Glϋckauf Essen GmbH (VGE) produces mapping of minerals and energy resources and facilities in Germany and Europe.
Verwaltungsverlag publishes a large range of town and Kreiskarten and town maps with particular emphasis upon southern Germany.
Wenninger GmbH is a commercial GIS vendor concentrating upon the Bavarian market.
Westermann Verlag publishes maps and atlases for the educational market, including the Diercke reference atlases, school atlases, reference maps of some of the Lander and a large range of wall maps.
The Statistisches Bundesamt (SBA) is the federal agency responsible for the collection and dissemination of official statistical information. It publishes several series of A3 sized maps to illustrate tabulated statistical themes. SBA also publishes CD-ROM-based statistical products, including two recent land cover databases, for the former Federal Republic, and the new Länder and Berlin, with vector mapping, aerial photographic and satellite data to 1:100,000 scale.
The Statistisches Landesamt Baden-Wϋrttemberg (SLAB-W) publishes statistical mapping.